Causes of infertility

Causes for infertility


The causes of infertility are diverse: masculine, feminine, mixed (at both partners) or unexplained (in 20% of the cases).


Feminine infertility causes:


A. Ovulatory dysfunction

  • Hormonal problems
  • Ovary related problems
    • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
    • Decreased ovarian reserve
    • Endometriosis
    • Previous surgical interventions


B.Functional disorders of the uterine tubes which result from adhesion and blocking of the tubes


C.Uterus related problems

  • Myoma
  • Structural abnormalities of the uterus
  • Endometrial polyp
  • Cervix problems
  • Uterus conditions (endometer), as well as confluents


After identifying the cause of the infertility, the investigation concerning its treatment is started, and consequently, the next step is taken – planning the treatment.


Masculine infertility causes

  • Erectile dysfunctions: Under this category falls the premature ejaculation, the impossibility of maintaining an erection
  • Testicle related diseases: problems that have to do with the sperm production, related to structural abnormalities of the testicles.
  • Ejaculatory duct obstruction:  this condition is rarely present in men, however, when present, it prevents the sperm from getting into the woman’s ovule and fertilize it in order to conceive.
  • Chromosomal abnormalities
  • Varicocele: is a condition characterized by varicose dilatation of the testicle veins
  • Azoospermia: is a masculine infertility condition that supposes difficulties in producing spermatozoids.
  • Systemic diseases: Liver and kidney conditions and problems related to the pituitary gland which disrupts the hormonal balance. These affect the sperm production. The diseases with increased fever decrease the quality of the sperm. Certain conditions of the nervous system can determine sexual dysfunctions.


According to the World Health Organization (WHO 2010), the normal spermatozoid values in the sperm are the following:

  • The volume of seminal material (ml) – 1.5 (1.4-1.7)
  • Total number of spermatozoids (106 for ejaculation) – 39 (33-46)
  • Sperm concentration ( 106 on ml) – 15 (12-16)
  • Total motility (PR + NPR%) – 40 (38-42)
  • Progressive motility (PR,%) – 32 (31-34)
  • Vitality (living spermatozoids, %) – 58 (55-63)
  • Sperm morphology (regular forms,%) – 4 (3.0-4.0).